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Designing Water Network for Distributing Water

Water Network is  a system of pipes and trenches providing the appropriate quality and quantity of water to a community. The network construction and layout have to be carefully prepared in order to guarantee enough pressure and ensure hygienically safe water. Once constructed, maintenance – including repair, leakage control, preventing contamination, etc. and the operation of pumping stations were gravity pressure is not enough– has to be ensured.

Requirements of an Adequate Distribution System

Water quality should not deteriorate while water is in the distribution pipes. The system should be capable of supplying water to all the intended places with sufficient pressure head.

It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of water during fire fighting.

The layout should be such that no consumer is without water supply, even during the repair of any section of the system.

All the distribution pipes should preferably be laid one meter from or above sewer lines.

It should be fairly watertight to keep losses (e.g. Due to leakage) to a minimum.

Design of water system network

Generally the water supply lines are convenient to be taken up on the edges of existing Roads/Streets. This enables easy location of these utilities and also is easily accessible during maintenance and repairs.

As a case study we can consider that a water network has to be planned for a habitat.

Initially, Topo survey of the area is done to understand the ground profile and also to prepare the plans.  A high point (Highest elevation) is identified to finalise the location of the overhead tank. From here the network of pipe lines is then designed in a structured manner so as to provide water to all the desired points. Utmost care is taken to see that it is a gravity network, and total length of the network is kept as minimum as possible. Other design parameters like diameter of the pipes, quality of the pipes, placement of the pipes etc..

As a part of the documentation the plan of the pipeline and the vertical profile is also presented. Each of the alignment is handled as a separate entity and the designs for the same are completed. Handling of multiple alignments as a complete network is not that easy. The elevations at the node points are to be visualized so that no considerable difference in the elevations between the joining pipes at the node.

A Sample of Plan and profile is attached below.

Water Network
A Sample of Network Planning is shown below
Water Network