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Geometric Design of Roads

The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage.

Geometric road design

Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called "livability," which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage.

Image of designed and executed road project

Geometric design is comprised of horizontal design, vertical (Profile) design and preparing of cross sections. Horizontal design comprises of design of horizontal curves. These curves vary from simple curves, curves with transitions, compound curves and reverse curves. These are designed based on the site requirements, but not superseding the IRC codes in India. Vertical curves comprise of Sag and crest curves, which are provided to ease the vertical gradients. Based on the horizontal and vertical designs, cross sections are prepared to estimate the variable and design quantities. Also the working cross sections are used to execute the construction of the Road projects.

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